Overview and Recognize 
01 
Lean Six Sigma Break Thought Strategies 
• What are Lean, Six Sigma, and Six Sigma?
• The Effects of Eliminate Wastes and Reduced Variation
• Driving out Defects and Non Value Activities
• Process Effectiveness vs. Efficiency
• Translating Customer Needs into Requirements
• The Lean Six Sigma Breakthrough Strategy
• Lean Six Sigma Roles
• Lean Six Sigma Storyboard (DMAIC) 
Learn the basics of Lean & Six Sigma.
Learn on how are these two quality improvement methodologies similar & dissimilar.
Know about interesting industries in which Lean Six Sigma is implemented.
Learn on how Lean Six Sigma helps management achieve their business objectives faster & better than any other improvement methodology.
Members identified for Work Team (core team that will work through detailed DMAIC activities, led by GB)
Members identified for Support Team (Champion, Process Owner, Controller, Master Black Belt)
Process Owner engaged (signed Statement of Work) 
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Projector 
Day 1
Morning
8:30 – 12:00
Day 1
Afternoon
13:30 – 16:30 
02 
Recognize Phase 
• Pipes and Puddles – What’s the Process?
• The Customer’s Perspective
• Determining How Well the Process Satisfies Customers
• Process Boundaries
• SIPOC and IPO Diagram
• Identifying Improvement Opportunities
• Value Stream Mapping 
Evidence that the process/deliverable selected for improvement will substantially impact the organization (aligned with business strategies and/or significant opportunity to improve customer satisfaction, reduce cost, etc.) Project is appropriate for Lean Six Sigma (Process to be improved is valueadded and large enough to allow breakthrough; improvement requires all phases of DMAIC; can be completed in 4 to 6 months or, at most, 9 months for largescope transactional projects) 
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Projector
Visio 
Define Phase 
03 
Define Phase 
• Clearly define what the customers care about.
• Define the Lean Six Sigma Project:
• Description of the work process to be improved
• Problem Statement (using measures of customer careabout)
• Project Objective (improve meeting customer careabout by how much?)
• The project plan
• Projection of time required of team members; other resources needed for project execution; potential barriers (detailed project planning) 
Clear description of process to be improved (IPO Diagram and/or defined events that signal clear “Start” and “End” points); concisely stated in verb and noun format
List of all process deliverables (tangible outputs)
Identification of primary deliverable to be improved
List of all customers (internal and/or external groups of people who use or rely upon the primary deliverable)
Identification of primary customers (those who rely upon or use the primary deliverable the most)
List of customer CTs (What the primary customers care about relative to the primary deliverable)
Identification of high priority CTs (what the customers care about the most)
Identification of CT(s) to be improved (the high priority CT(s) that the current process is not providing as well as the customer would like)
Identification of Business and Customer Y(s) that can be used, though rough, to glean information from historical databases (defect measures driven from critical customer CTs)
Specifications for Y (customer specifications for each Y to be improved)
Description of “unit” and “defect” (relative to each Y to be improved)
Collateral Ys (measures related to CTs not selected for improvement; these Ys must be maintained at their current level)
Appropriate graphs and descriptive statistics provided, with interpretation (histogram, control chart, Pareto, etc., each labeled with the “Y” and its unit of measure)

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Projector
Ms. Project
Visio 
Day 2
Morning
8:30 – 12:00 
04 
Calculate project benefit and effective 
• What is Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ)?
• Quality Cost Categories
• Estimating Cost Savings for a Lean Six Sigma Project
• Hard vs. Soft Costs 
Cost of Poor Quality (the cost of not providing the CTs as well as the customer would like; failure, appraisal and prevention costs; cost of waste)
Expected benefits from this project (in terms of safety, strategic impact, hard and soft cost savings, improved customer satisfaction, defect and variation reduction, cycle time reduction, productivity improvement, etc.) 
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Projector
Excel 
Day 2
Afternoon
13:30 – 16:30 
Measure Phase 
05 
The Power of Data 
• Why Use Data
• The Role of Statistics
• Variable Data / Continuous Data
• Attribute Data / Discrete Data
• Levels of Knowledge

Translation of Customer Ys to Process Y(s) to be improved (measures that relate to the quality of the process deliverables, describe the physical state of the output, and are clearly linked to customer CTs)
Specifications for Y (customer specifications for each Process Y to be improved)
Description of “unit” and “defect” (relative to each Process Y to be improved)
Historical Data: List of team’s ideas regarding what historical data could be collected that would indicate current process performance, and rationale behind the decision of whether or not to collect the data (demonstration that every effort was made to glean information from historical data, even if data is imperfect)
Realtime Data: List of items (process Ys) on which realtime data was collected, and why it was deemed necessary
Data collection was only on Ys, not Xs (usually, no more than 3 Ys)
Selected Ys provide “hard” numbers, as opposed to opinion data 
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Projector
Minitab 
Day 3
Morning
8:30 – 12:00 
06 
Continuous Data 
• Descriptive versus Inferential Statistics
• Characterizing Data Sets:
• Shape of Distribution
• Central Tendency (Mean, Median, Mode)
• Variation (Range, Standard Deviation, Variance)
• Dotplots
• Histograms
• Boxplots
• Normal Distribution 

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Projector
Minitab
Excel 
07 
Discrete Date 
• Defects versus Defective Items
• Counting Defective Items
• Parts per Million (PPM)
• Counting Number of Defects
• Defining Opportunities
• Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO)
• Defects per Unit (DPU)
• Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)
• Process Capability Metrics


PC
Projector
Minitab
Excel 
Day 3
Afternoon
13:30 – 16:30 
08 
Data Collection Plan 
• What is Data?
• Why is Data Collection Important?
• Sampling Strategies
• Strategy for Process Baselining
• Collecting Data Effectively
• Creating a Checklist
• Graphing the Data and Graphical Toolbox
• Pie Chart, Stacked Bar Chart, Pareto Diagram, Pareto Chart Interpretation, Time Series Analysis 
Appropriate Measurement System Analysis conducted and, if needed, measurement system improved (Transactional: may include checking accuracy of databases and creating clear operational definitions; in all cases, clear description of measurement system/evaluation criteria is given)
Data Collection Sheet created (showing source of data, quantity of data, stratification, who collected the data and when)
Appropriate graphs and descriptive statistics provided, with interpretation (histogram, control chart, Pareto, etc., each labeled with the “Y” and its unit of measure) 
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Projector
Minitab
Excel 
09 
Measuring Process Behavior 
• Determining What to Measure
• Extracting Knowledge from Data
• Understanding Types of Variation
• Process Behavior Charts for Variable Data:
• I & mR Chart
• X Bar and R Chart
• Process Behavior Charts for Attribute Data:
• p Chart
• u Chart
• Interpreting Process Behavior Charts 

PC
Projector
Minitab
Excel 
Day 4
Morning 8:30 – 12:00
Day 4
Afternoon
13:30 – 16:30

10 
Process Capability 
• What is Process Capability
• Process Capability from Variable Data
• Estimating Percentage Beyond Specification Limits
• Cp, Cpk Indices
• Process Capability from Attribute Data 
Calculate Cp, Cpk values if the various values of USL, LSL, Mean, Standard Deviation is provided.
Learn about the differences between the capability indices including Cp, Cpk. Learn on when to reduce variation in the process & when to move mean closer to target. Also learn the thumb rules for comparing Cp, Cpk against. 
PC
Projector
Minitab
Excel 
11 
Sigma Level 
• When evaluating current level (baseline) of how well the process meets customer careabout.
• To quantify Improvement in the process performance 
Baseline process capability study, using appropriate graphs and metrics (ST Sigma Level, LT PPM) and estimated improvement target defined
Learn about what is Sigma Level. Why do we need to baseline the current performance before performing any improvements? Learn about Sigma long term & short term & the relationship between these two.
Calculating Sigma Level for continuous data. Learn on how to calculate Zst, Zlt if the provided data type is continuous.
Calculating Sigma Level for discrete data. Learn on how to calculate Zst, Zlt if the provided data type is discrete. 
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Projector
Minitab
Excel 
Analyze Phase 
12 
Analyze cause and Effect C&E and C&E Matrix 
• Comparing the C & E Diagram and the C & E Matrix
• What is a Cause and Effect Diagram?
• Conducting Cause and Effect Analysis Using the Diagram
• Constructing a Cause and Effect Matrix
• Verifying Causes
• Evaluating KPIVs 
Learn about the various steps involved in performing Fishbone analysis, which is also called as Cause & Effect analysis or Ishikawa diagram. Also learn on how to identify the various high level categories and also 5Why analysis.
Causes/Xs are linked to the undesirable condition(s) in the Process Y(s) quantified in Measure Phase
Appropriate team use of at least one of the following: C&E Diagram, C&E Matrix,
Evidence of digging deep, asking “Why Why Why”, to find root causes (If used C&E Diagram, many subbranches)
Evidence of comprehensively exploring all major categories of causes (People, Methods, Materials, Machines; each major process step; usually 20 to 50 potential causes identified)
Causes are not stated as solutions or absence of solutions
Causes are specific, actionable
Voting, scoring or similar team method used to identify the causes (Xs) suspected to be the biggest contributors 
PC
Projector
Visio
Minitab
Excel 
Day 5
Morning 8:30 – 12:00 
13 
Failure Mod Effect Analyse FMEA 
• Risk Management Roadmap
• Risk Treatment Planning
• What is FMEA?
• Objectives of FMEA in Lean Six Sigma
• When to use FMEA
• FMEA Steps
• FMEA “Tips”
• FMEA Exercise 
Learn difference between risk & an issue & the various steps involved in risk management including risk identification, qualitative & quantitative risk analysis, plan risk responses & monitor the risks.
Learn about FMEA which is the best known technique to identify, prioritize and manage risks. Learn on who has pioneered FMEA and how does it help in assessing current process analysis.
Learn about the scales given to Severity, Detection & Occurrence. Learn on how to calculate the risk priority number & how to prioritize the risks based on RPN. 
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Projector
Excel 
Day 5 Afternoon 13:30 – 16:30 
14 
Analyse of Correlation and Regression 
• What is a Correlation?
• Scatter Diagram
• The Correlation Coefficient, r
• Regression Analysis
• The Coefficient of Determination, R2
• Adjusted R2
• Overall Significance
• Why Use a Regression Equation? 
Learn about scatter plot to determine the direction of relationship between 2 variables, strength of the relationship between 2 variables & whether the relationship is linear or not. Learn about the correlation coefficient, r, & its range to determine the strength of relationship in a quantitative way. Also learn about the direction of relationship.
Learn about regression equation & the various parameters to form a regression equation which will help you predict the output with a given set of inputs. 
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Projector
Minitab
Excel 
Day 6 Morning 8:30 – 12:00
Day 6 Afternoon 13:30 – 16:30 
15 
Cause Verifi
cation 
• Why Verify Causes?
• Methods for Verifying Causes
• Creating the Plan to Verify Causes
• Types of Distribution, Normal Distribution, Binomial Distribution, Poisson Distribution
• Data World Used for Inferential Statistics, Statistical Interference
• Context for Inferential Statistics, Point and Interval Estimates,
• Hypothesis Testing (Step by step)
• Normality Test
• 2 Sample TTest
• Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 
Metrics (or levels) given for each suspected, strong X that was identified in Analyze Phase
For each suspected strong X, data collected at specified levels of X to determine if it impacts Y (historical data used to the extent possible; realtime data efficiently collected, if needed; possible screening DOE)
Appropriate analysis of the verification data, with correct conclusions (appropriate hypothesis test, or correlation/regression analysis, or DOE analysis, etc.; null and alternative hypotheses correctly stated for each test; interpretation of each analysis)
A number of causes (Xs) found that each have a strong impact on Y and are within the team’s control (usually, at least 5 to 7 strong causes for each defect or undesirable condition)
Classification of Xs as “Control” or “Noise” 
PC
Projector
Minitab
Excel 

16 
Detailed Process Mapping 
• Process Mapping in Measure, Analyze and Improve Phases
• Steps for Creating Detailed Process Map
• Identify Nonvalueadded Steps
• Analyze the Map
• The “Should Be” Map 
To capture all the complexity and improvement opportunities by analyzing each step in detail. Seek out the 7Wastes and enhance current valueadded activities.
Process Maps are detailed flow diagram of the process using color coded symbols that drill further into the high level map generated on the SIPOC.
The purpose is to visually represent the process as it is in reality. Complete the current state map by walking (GEMBA walk) and experiencing the process. This is a valuable learning experience; the team will quickly gain insight about the actual flow. Don’t sit in a room and think it through yourself or with the team. Patience, time, asking questions are all part of the completing this map.
Create a current state and a future state. Your team may want a future state with a short term target (such as 90 days) and a long term ideal state. 
PC
Projector
Visio
Minitab
Excel 
Day 7
Morning 8:30 – 12:00
Day 7
Afternoon 13:30 – 16:30

Improve Phase 
17 
Identified solution for Improvement 
• Counteract Causes
• What is a Counteraction?
• Brainstorming Counteractions
• Evaluation Matrix 
Brainstormed list of possible counteractions (possible solutions for each verified cause; numerous alternative ideas generated)
Brainstormed List of Solutions: contains numerous innovative ideas that go beyond the obvious
Brainstormed List of Solutions: each solution idea evaluated in terms of “Effectiveness”, “Ease to Implement”, and “Cost”
Brainstormed List of Solutions: For each verified cause, solutions selected that are expected to be effective, easy to implement and low cost
Brainstormed (smallscale, temporary installment of solutions, where possible) List of Solutions: Data collected to verify that each solution produces a substantial improvement in Y
At least one strong, verified counteraction found for each verified cause that was identified in Analyze Phase
Graph showing the overall impact on Process Y from the combined effects of all counteractions/best operating levels; actual improvement compared to targeted improvement 
PC
Projector
Excel 
18 
Optimize Process Flow 
• “To Be” Process Map
• Improve Phase Roadmap
• Cost Reduction Principle
• Phases of Lean Office
• Customer Demand
• Takt and Pitch Calculation
• Buffer and Safety Resources
• 5S for the Office
• Continuous Flow 
New process map showing the improved process
New process capability study, using appropriate graphs and metrics (control chart, PPM, Process Sigma Level, etc.) and comparison to baseline from Measure Phase
Total Score for “Verifying Solutions” out of a possible 5 (or 6)
Analysis of why the implemented solutions fell short or exceeded the expected gain in the Process Y and, if needed, another cycle through identifying causes and/or solutions
Identify which step of the service process limits the overall throughput and improve the performance of that step of the process.
Organize the work area with 5S
Service where workinprocess smoothly flows through production with minimal (or no) buffers between steps of the service process. 
PC
Projector
Visio 
Day 8
Morning 8:30 – 12:00

• PokaYoke (Mistake Proofing)
• Kanban and FIFO
• Standardized Work
• Work Balancing
• Leveling
• Capacity Leveling
• Visual Management for Leveling 
Visual feedback system for the plant floor that indicates production status, alerts when assistance is needed, and empowers operators to stop the production process.
A method of regulating the flow of goods both within the company and with outside suppliers and customers. Based on automatic replenishment through signal cards that indicate when more goods are needed.
Metrics designed to track and encourage progress towards critical goals of the organization. Strongly promoted KPIs can be extremely powerful drivers of behavior – so it is important to carefully select KPIs that will drive desired behavior.
Pull parts through production based on customer demand instead of pushing parts through production based on projected demand. Relies on many lean tools, such as Continuous Flow, Heijunka, Kanban, Standardized Work and Takt Time. 
PC
Projector
Excel
Visio 
Day 8
Afternoon 13:30 – 16:30

Control Phase 
19 
Control Plan 
• What is a Control Plan?
• Control Plan Strategy
• What to Control?
• Identifying KPIVs
• Why Use a Control Plan?
• Developing a Control Plan
• Choosing the Right Level of Control
• Components of a Control Plan
• Control Plan Worksheet 
Unit of measure and allowable range determined for each critical X (relative to each verified solution or “best” operating level identified in Improve Phase
Measurement systems verified for each critical X
Appropriate control device identified for each critical X (control chart, visual control, errorproofing solution, SOP, etc.)
Strategy for ongoing data collection for each critical X (who, how much data, how often)
Corrective action strategy for each critical X (actions that should be taken when X deviates from its allowable range)
Control Plan document containing all of the above 
PC
Projector
Excel 
Day 9
Morning 8:30 – 12:00
Day 9
Afternoon 13:30 – 16:30 
20 
Standardization 
• How to Control the Xs
• What is Standardized Work?
• What is a Standard?
• Why Standards are Needed
• 5S and Visual Controls
• Sharing Best Practices 
Documented procedures for manufacturing that capture best practices (including the time to complete each task). Must be “living” documentation that is easy to change. 
PC
Projector
Excel 
21 
Error Proofing 
• What is Error Proofing?
• Errors>Mistakes>Defects
• Some Benefits of Error Proofing
• Why use Error Proofing?
• The Quest for Zero Defects
• Error Proofing Principles
• Common Causes of Errors / Mistakes
• Controlling Sources of Error
• Error Proofing Inspection Techniques
• Implementing Error Proofing 
Design error detection and prevention into production processes with the goal of achieving zero defects. 
PC
Projector
Excel 
22 
TPM 
• Total Productive Maintenance
• Some common types of maintenance
• Introduction to TPM
• Implementing TPM and what are the benefits? 
Framework for measuring productivity loss for a given process. Three categories of loss are tracked:
• Availability (e.g. down time)
• Performance (e.g. slow cycles)
• Quality (e.g. rejects) 
PC
Projector
Excel 
Day 10
Morning 8:30 – 12:00
Day 10
Afternoon 13:30 – 16:30 
Review and Finish

23 
Review and examination 
• Question and answer
• Review Lean Six Sigma knowledge
• Review and Edit Team’s presentation
Final Examination Lean Six Sigma Green Belt 
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Projector 
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